The caste system in Kerala differed from that found in the rest of India. While the Indian caste system generally modeled the four-fold division of society into BrahminsKshatriyasVaishyas and Shudrasin Kerala the Nambudiri Brahmins formed the priestly class and only rarely recognized anyone else as being other than Shudra or untouchablesthe latter being outside the caste system entirely.
Thus, the Kerala caste system was ritualized but it was not the varna model found elsewhere. In Southern India, only in Kerala did there appear warrior lineages approximate to the Kshatriya model. These warriors never lost their identity as Sudras.
Nair Kshatriya hood is based on special ecological conditions and it is a case of elevated sudra to Kshatriya status.Different between general , UR , OC , BC ,SC ,ST ,OBC , about details in tamil
This argues that the Jains needed protection when they arrived in the area and recruited a group of local sympathizers to provide it. These people were then distinguished from others in the local population by their occupation as protectors, with the others all being classed as out-caste.
Cyriac Pullapillya Professor of History, describes that this meant they " An alternative theory, also explained by Pullapilly, states that the system was introduced by Nambudiri Brahmins themselves. Although Brahmin influences had existed in the area since at least the 1st century CE, there was a large influx of these people from around the 8th century when they acted as priests, counsellors and ministers to invading Aryan princes.
At the time of their arrival, the non-aboriginal local population had been converted to Buddhism by missionaries who had come from the north of India and from Ceylon. The Brahmins used their symbiotic relationship with the invading forces to assert their beliefs and position. Buddhist temples and monasteries were either destroyed or taken over for use in Hindu practices, thus undermining the ability of the Buddhists to propagate their beliefs. The Brahmins treated almost all of those who acceded to their priestly status as Shudra, permitting only a small number to be recognised as Kshatriya, these being some of the local rulers [ which?
By the 11th century, this combination of association with kings and invaders, and with the destruction or take-over of Buddhist temples, made the Brahmins by far the largest land-owning group in the region and they remained so until very recent times.
The origins of Malayalam as a language is also attributed to the Nambudiri Brahmin's mixing of Sanskrit and the local Tamil language. Their dominating influence was to be found in all matters: religion, politics, society, economics and culture. A theory presented by Pullapilly and also by Rene Barendse, who as of [update] is a Fellow of the International Institute for Asian Studiesclaims that the caste system established by Nambudiri Brahmins of Kerala was in accordance with the will of Parasuramaan avatar of Vishnu.
The Nambudiris had control of 64 villages and asserted that they had powers given to them by the gods, so much so that they considered even other Brahmin groups to be outside the caste hierarchy. Both writers consider this to be the traditional Nambudiri myth of origin. Anyone who was not a Nambudiri was treated by them as an untouchable. The entire Malabar region had strict pollution rules that were considered by the observers to be the most extreme in all of India.
Lower caste people could use only separate paths and their houses were in places where they could not be seen. Lower castes can pollute a Brahmin or Nair, not by mere touch but also coming within certain feet from them. Nair warriors could kill a lower caste Pulayar on sight if they met with one of them on the highway.
The Ambalavasis were kept between the Brahmins and the Nairs. The lower castes, particularly the Pulayars were not even allowed to breathe the same air as the other castes or use a public pathway.
If a Nair meets a Pulayar on the highway by accident, he cuts him down like a others cut an unpleasant animal. The Nair's right to kill any Pulayar imminently he met on the pathway is confirmed by almost all visitors to Kerala.ErodeTamil NaduIndia. TuticorinTamil NaduIndia. ChennaiTamil NaduIndia. HosurTamil NaduIndia. VelloreTamil NaduIndia. NilgirisTamil NaduIndia. MaduraiTamil NaduIndia.
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You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. The Ezhavas or Izhavas are the largest ethnic groups in Kerala, a south Indian state. They are also found amongst the Malayalee diaspora around the world. The group shares a common history from the pre-social reform era, when caste was an integral part of the political, economic, legal, and social order across Kerala. There is a hypothesis that Ezhavas are descendants of Buddhists from Sri Lanka, or emissaries from the Magadhan empire who refused to convert to Hinduism.
This hypothesis has been supported by genetic studies which show that the allelic distribution of Ezhavas in a bi-dimensional plot correspondence analysis based on HLA-A, -B, and -C frequencies shows a rather strong East Eurasian element due to its proximity to the Mongol population in the same plot.
These men were sent, ostensibly, to set up Coconut farming in Kerala. Another version of the story says that the Sri Lankan King sent eight martial families to Kerala at the request of a Chera King to quell a civil war that erupted in Kerala against him.
According to historian C. The Pandarams who perform priestly duties in Ezhava temples are considered to be successors of Buddhist monks. However, he also says that it is very unlikely that the Ezhavas came from Sri Lanka and spread all over Kerala; instead they were the mainstream of Munda-Dravidian immigrants who left Tamil Nadu in the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries to avoid persecution at the hands of their political enemies. The poet Mahakavi Kumaranasan, whose poems or Khandakavya such as Nalini, Leela, Karuna and Chandala Bhikshuki extol Buddhist ideals lamented at times in his verses about the past glory of the Sinhalese, or the natives of Sri Lanka, whom he considered to be the forefathers of present day Ezhavas.
This Buddhist tradition, and refusal to give it up, pushed the Ezhavas to an outcast role within the greater Brahminic society. Nevertheless, this Buddhism tradition can still be seen in that the Ezhavas seem to have a uniquely greater interest in the moral, non-ritualistic, non-dogmatic aspects of the religion rather than the theological. While Ezhavas were once employed as ayurvedic physicians, warriors, Kalari trainers and traders, after the arrival of Namboothiri Brahmins and with the establishment of Vedic system, a number were discriminated against and subjugated to taking up lowly placed jobs like toddy tapping, selling and making arrack, palm wine, etc.
Some Ezhavas remained wealthy and some others became masters in various fields such ayurveda medicinemartial arts Kalaripayattu, Varma Kalari, etc. Folklore and written records indicate that the Ezhavas also identified themselves as a martial class. Ezhava folk songs, the Vadakkan Pattukal, composed about hundred years ago, described military exploits of Ezhava heroes. Ezhavas served in the armed forces of all important kings of the region, such as Zamorins of Calicut, and the Kings of Travancore and Cochin.
A lot many were trainers of Martial art Kalaripayattu. As per Hortus Malabaricus by J. Heniger, Ezhavas otherwise called silgostree climbersalso bound to wars and arms. These people were also serve to teach Nairs in fencing school. Kalari Panickers from an Ezhava tharavaad based at Kulathoor were trainers of famous Ettuveetil Pillamars, and their descendants have looked after the Chamundi Devi Kalari devatha temple at Thozhuvancode, Thiruvananthapuram.
Syrian Christians, allowed by the Hindu leaders to have their own private armies, recruited Ezhavas members due in part to this tradition. There were in fact several acclaimed Ezhava Ayurvedic scholars. The first Malayalam book published by the Dutch intitled Hortus Indicus Malabaricus, speaks in its preface about a Vaidyar doctor Karappuram Kadakkarappally Kollattu Veettil Itty Achuthan of present-day Alappuzha districta reputed vaidyar of the community as the main force behind the book and he is the one who edited the book to reach its present form.
Kesavan Vaidyar founded of Chandrika. Manavikraman Zamorin of Kozhikode in Padmanabhan Vaidyar, who hails from a well-known traditional Ayurvedic family. Their product kamilari is now famous among patients having liver diseases.
Kuzhuppully and Pokkanchery families in Thrissur and Calicut respectively are traditional families of Ayurvedacharyans.Vanniyar Manamalai. Please confirm Christian kodikalkara vellalar in tamilnadu comes under BC list.
Caste system in Kerala
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For the best Kerala bride and groom profiles, register free on allyseek. Visit: Kerala Matrimony. Iam a Christian sozhiya vellalar but the problem the is they give the certificate for only sozhiya vellalar not for Christian they did not mention the religion. Agamudayar including Thozhu or Thuluva Vellala. Agaram Vellan Chettiar. Archakarai Vellala. Ayira Vaisyar.They used to work as agricultural labourers, small cultivators, toddy tappers and liquor businessmen, some Ezhavas were also involved in weaving and some practised Ayurveda.
Thiyyar dynasties such as the Mannanar existed in Kerala. In the present day, the Ezhavas are classified as an Other Backward Class by the Government of India under its system of positive discrimination.
There are myths of origin for the Ezhava. According to some Malayalam folk songs [ which? These men were sent, ostensibly, to set up coconut farming in the region. It has been suggested that the Ezhavas may share a common heritage with the Nair caste. This theory is based on similarities between numerous of the customs adopted by the two groups, particularly with regard to marking various significant life stages such as childbirth and death, as well as their matrilineal practices and martial history.
Oral history, folk songs and other old writings indicate that the Ezhavas were at some point in the past members of the armed forces serving various kings, including the Zamorins of Calicut and the rulers of the Kingdom of Cochin.
Cyriac Pullapilly has said that only a common parentage can explain some of these issues. A theory has been proposed for the origins of the caste system in the Kerala region based on the actions of the Aryan Jains introducing such distinctions prior to the 8th-century AD.
This argues that the Jains needed protection when they arrived in the area and recruited local sympathizers to provide it. These people were then distinguished from others in the local population by their occupation as protectors, with the others all being classed as out-caste. Pullapilly describes that this meant they " Thus originated the Nairs. An alternate theory states that the system was introduced by the Nambudiri Brahmins.
Although Brahmin influences had existed in the area since at least the 1st century CE, there was a large influx from around the 8th century when they acted as priests, counsellors and ministers to invading Aryan princes. At the time of their arrival the non-aboriginal local population had been converted to Buddhism by missionaries who had come from the north of India and from Ceylon.
The Brahmins used their symbiotic relationship with the invading forces to assert their beliefs and position. Buddhist temples and monasteries were either destroyed or taken over for use in Hindu practices, thus undermining the ability of the Buddhists to propagate their beliefs. The Buddhist tradition of the Ezhavas, and the refusal to give it up, pushed them to an outcaste role within the greater Brahminic society.
The social anthropologists Filippo and Caroline Osella say that the Ezhavas " Aiyappananother social anthropologist and himself a member of the caste,  noted the mythical belief that the Ezhava brought coconut palms to the region when they moved from Ceylon.
This activity is sometimes erroneously referred to as toddy tappingtoddy being a liquor manufactured from the sap.Inverse function calculator mathpapa
Arrack was another liquor produced from the palms, as was jaggery an unrefined sugar. In reality, most Ezhavas were agricultural labourers and small-time cultivators, with a substantial number diverging into the production of coir products, such as coconut mats for flooring, from towards the end of the 19th century.
A boom in trade for these manufactured goods after World War I led to a unique situation in twentieth-century Kerala whereby there was a shortage of labour, which attracted still more Ezhavas to the industry from outlying rural areas.
The Great Depression impacted in particular on the export trade, causing a reduction in price and in wages even though production increased, with the consequence that during the s many Ezhava families found themselves to be in dire financial circumstances. Some Ezhavas were involved in weaving and ship making. Some Thiyyar served in army of local chieftains and local rulers such as of Kadathanad and Kurumbranad of Kerala, who were privileged in the pre-colonial period to have their own private armies.Desene barbie în română
A subgroup of the Thiyyas considered themselves to be warriors and became known as the Chekavars. The Vadakkan Pattukal ballads describe Chekavars as forming the militia of local chieftains and kings but the title was also given to experts of Kalari Payattu.
Some Ezhavas had an extensive knowledge of the medicinal value of plants, passed to them by their ancestors. Known as Vaidyarsthese people acted as physicians.Nadars are predominant in the districts of KanyakumariThoothukudiTirunelveli and Thiruvananthapuram. The Nadar community was not a single caste, but developed from an assortment of related subcastes, which in course of time came under the single banner Nadar.
Nadar climbers were the largest subsect of today's Nadar community. A few subsects of the Nadar community, such as the Nelamaikkararswere traditionally wealthy landlords and money lenders. Historically, most Nadars were cultivators of palmyra trees and jaggery and a few were also involved in the toddy trade. Nadar climbers had faced discrimination from major upper castes in some regions. The martial art of Varma Kalai was historically practiced by the Nadars. The socio-economic development achieved by the Nadars in southern India has elicited academic interest.
The community was previously known as Shanar  but legally changed their name to Nadar in Nadars claim that the original name of the community was Shantror or Shandrar noble one which, in course of time, was corrupted to Shanar. Channar is a title used by the Ezhava community of Kerala. The origin of Nadars as a social group is uncertain.
Hardgrave stated that the Teri palmyra forests around today's Tiruchendur must have been their original abode. They also claimed that the Nayak rulers of Tamil Nadu imposed Deshaprashtam ostracism on the ancient Nadars to ensure that they would not rise. The traditions followed by the Nelamaikkarars and the existence of the ruins beneath the Teri palmrya forests of Tiruchendur and the Pandyan capital city of Korkaiwhere the Nadar population is predominant, suggest they could very well be the heirs of the Early Pandyas.Manchester united f.c. rb leipzig
In the early nineteenth century, the Nadars were a community mostly engaged in the palmyra industry, including the production of toddy.
They commanded high respect among the population, including from groups such as the Nadar climbers, the minority Vellalars and the Brahmins. Nadan men rode horses and their women rode in covered palanquins. Nadar climbers were also to be found in other regions of Tamil Nadu where a few palmyra trees grew. In areas where the Nadar climber population consisted of only a few families in a village, they faced discrimination from major upper castes.
They were also very caste conscious. Hardgrave conjectures that the Nadars of Southern Travancore migrated there from Tirunelveli in the 16th century after the invasion of Tirunelveli by the Raja of Travancore.
Like their Tirunelveli counterparts, the Nadars of Travancore were mostly palmyra climbers. However, a significant number of Nadars were subtenants to Nair or Vellalar landlords.
Tamil Nadu Ezhava Matrimony
These aristocratic Nadars called themselves Nadans and some of them had direct control over their lands. The Nadans enjoyed special privileges under the Raja and claimed that they were superior to the climbers. The climbers of Travancore fared a little better than their Tirunelveli counterparts but suffered severe social disabilities not found in Tirunelveli due to Travancore's rigid caste hierarchy. As Swami Vivekananda stated, the Keralite hierarchy was a lunatic asylum of castes.
One example of the social disabilities was that Nadar climber women were not allowed to cover their bosoms to punctuate their low status.Take off meaning in hindi
However, the Nadan women of the region were exempted from this restriction. Discontented with their social status, a large number of Nadar climbers embraced Christianity and became upwardly mobile. Although they improved their status with the aid of Christian missionaries, the outcome of their conversion did not conform to the intent of those missionaries. Both the Christian and Hindu Nadar climber women wore the upper jacket in the manner of upper-class women, in order to improve their social status.
In turn, upper-class men abused and discriminated against them. One Nadan family of Agastheeswaraminstead of supporting their depressed counterparts, supported the upper-class men and claimed that only their women had the right to wear an upper cloth.
The situation became known as the Upper cloth controversy and became violent. Eventually, with assistance from the Travancore authorities, British Christian Missionaries and Vaikunta Swamythe depressed Nadar climber women won the right to wear their upper cloth in the manner of their Nadan counterparts.Brett and Amber, United States Pearls of the South and West, June 2016 Everything was planned out carefully and we encountered very little problem because of this.
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